So at the very least 100 years of income tax didn’t hurt America. In fact it kept on getting stronger.
I draw a different conclusion. Foundation of Silicon Valley itself was laid in the 50s by the defense contractors. Without more revenue from taxes USA won’t have a world beating military, and without that no need for defense R&D. America also benefits a lot from the GI Bill and world class research universities. Most of today’s infrastructure like highway and the UC system were built in the 50s and 60s with tax dollars.
Maybe you could play revisionist historian and argue everything could have happened with no government spending. All I know is they were in fact funded by tax dollars.
Looking globally, I see countries like China which is not shy at all throwing government resources at problems. I have to wonder if we are losing our competitiveness by our lack of investment.