I'm pretty sure the testosterone does change things. I remember reading about a woman who took hormone therapy to trans, and she said that she found that physics became much more interesting to her with the hormones.
I love math, and I'm a programmer. But I don't give a sh*t at all how many girls go into software engineering. I think people should do what they love, and that we need to acknowledge that women and men are different. If girls love more social endeavors then go for it. As an major introvert, I'm perfectly happy talking to a computer--doing sales would give me a heart attack. My daughter, on the other hand, can't stop talking. If she's like this when she's 18, I don't think being holed up with a computer would be a good match for her.
The biggest reason that women have a harder time becoming a CEO is the family issue. We get pregnant, we give birth, and we should be breastfeeding if the body allows as it's healthier both mom and kids. We get attached to the babies that way. A lot of women stay home after that because they feel the call of motherhood--they hate leaving the baby at a daycare. That sets you on a path on non-employment.
What sucks is being told by your husband that if he were to interview someone like me, he wouldn't recommend hiring me because after my time off, I haven't learned enough programming languages in the last 10 years. Maybe he's right, but that's where the problem is then. On the other hand, a friend of mine who is a CEO did say that he'd readily hire me if I just learned a new language and platform and did something as simply as write an app to display picture on my iphone--just show him you can still learn. But if the door is closed after you take time off for motherhood, it's a problem.
I know at least two women who became professors who were very concerned about having kids during the tenure period. Women simply don't trust the clock to really stop when you have a kid during tenure, especially when they're being judged by a panel of men. The first one had two kids during her PHD--she said that was perfect because there wasn't a clock, and her professor was supportive. Her husband stayed home with the kids during the day and worked nights as a waiter. The second one waited until after she got tenure. What was ironic is that the second one was very much a feminist and was involved in advocacy work during college. So for her to admit to me that she was afraid to have kids until after tenure made me really sad--obviously as a woman and a feminist, she knew the clock should stop and she wanted it to stop, but she was afraid to find out if it would.
The other problem is that someone has to be there for child sick days. If the husband and wife are willing to split that, great, BUT, not all husbands are (nanomug posted in another thread about a wife she worked with whose husband wouldn't take the day off when she had a deadline that day--I think that happens more often than we might think). So that means hiring a sick nanny which sometime makes the mom feel replaced. Women have to really have a positive sense of self for work-motherhood balance. Or family kicks in, and that's great for those who live near a mother/MIL that they trust.
I think this article is interesting: CEO of Pepsi says "I don't think women can have it all.":
And honestly, now that I'm a mom, I agree with her. I really appreciate her coming out and saying it. It needs to be said. Even fathers don't get it all--my husband would love to stay home with the kids, but he's the one with the job, so he can't. I think it bothers him too.
I absolutely believe that girls should view any job as available to them. I agree that they should never be viewed by a teacher as less capable to in learning science, math, and engineering, and honestly, my teachers were all very supportive of me 25 years ago. I even had a professor who I had met through the high school math contest that he ran and later took a university class from in 12th grade, take me aside and suggest that I get a PHD in math because there weren't enough women professors. That was a huge compliment! Unfortunately, I didn't think I wanted to teach (now, I actually wish I'd done what he said). Beyond that, though, I think we should let girls explore all the possibilities AND that we really should be counseling girls on which careers are easier to do part time, or easier to restart after having kids. Unlike me, many girls know that they want to have kids when they are deciding on college--it would be helpful to explain how easy it will be for them to take time off with the kids and jump back into the game.